Monthly Archives: September 2016

Romans 8:18-23 – Groans and Laments – The “Now” Stuff

Romans 8:18–23 (ESV) — 18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us. 19 For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God. 20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 21 that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. 22 For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. 23 And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.




Paul uses verse 18 to outline and frame his thoughts in verses 29-21.

  • He does so by presenting yet another now and not yet motif.
  • He speaks of the “sufferings of this present time” – the now.
  • He speaks of the “the glory that is to be revealed to us” – the not yet.


In verses 19-23, he fills out what he started.


The Now:

  • Sufferings of this present time” – vs. 18.
  • Creation…subjected to futility” – vs. 20.
  • Creation is in a “bondage to corruption” – vs. 21.
  • Romans 8:22 (ESV) — 22 For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now.
  • We, “groan inwardly” – vs. 23.


The Not Yet:

  • Glory that is to be revealed in us” – vs. 18.
  • Revealing of the sons of God” – vs. 19.
  • Romans 8:21 (ESV) — 21 that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God.
  • We, “wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies” – vs. 23.


Observing these two distinctions is significant enough.

  • The future for those in Christ is going to be pretty awesome.


But Paul didn’t speak of them just to be observed.

  • He wants them to be tasted and savored.
  • So we need to dive deep into a few of the ideas Paul has raised.



The “Now” Stuff – Suffering, Corruption, Groaning:

Paul makes quite a few allusions to The Fall.

  • Three highlights of The Fall ground much of what Paul is saying in Romans 8.
  • Genesis 3:17b (ESV) — 17b …cursed is the ground because of you…
  • Genesis 3:19b (ESV) — 19b …for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.
  • Genesis 3:23–24b (ESV) — 23 therefore the Lord God sent him out from the garden of Eden to work the ground from which he was taken. 24b He drove out the man…


These three excerpts capture the “now” that Paul is contending with in Romans 8.

  • (1) Creation has been corrupted and warped due to sin.
  • (2) God’s image bearers will die.
  • (3) God’s image bearers have been expelled from the presence, blessing and life of God and have corrupted creation.


He spoke of these things previously in Romans 5.

  • Romans 5:12 (ESV) — 12 Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned


Adam sinned; Adam was exiled from the Garden; Adam died.

  • We, therefore, were born in exile, so we sin and we die.


The fact of our death is why Paul laments in Romans 7 and in Romans 8:

  • Romans 7:24 (ESV) — 24 Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death?
  • Romans 8:10 (ESV) — 10 But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness.


So, lets deal with two questions that pop out.

  • To dive deep in God’s word – you have to question it!
  • Don’t worry, it can take it; its not going to break.



Question 1:

What does it mean that “creation has been groaning” and that we “groan inwardly”?


The BDAG gives us a couple of ideas:

  • “to groan together with, lament, groan”
  • “to express oneself involuntarily in the face of an undesirable circumstance, sigh, groan”


The EDNT puts it this way:

  • Groaning is “a powerful metaphor for the dejection and powerless yearning of believers in their present suffering”.


Simple enough, but these lead to more questions.


How does creation groan?

  • It seems the idea is that its current “cursed” condition is the expression of its groaning.
  • And such language points to the cosmic size of The Fall.
  • Which would mean the solution has to be cosmic in scope.


Why do we groan “inwardly”?

  • Given the fact that inwardly we are indwelled by the Spirit…
  • Wouldn’t make more sense to say we groan outwardly, in our bodies?
  • This would seem to fit the way that creation groans – outwardly, as a result of The Fall.


Paul helps us out in some other texts (X-Refs).

  • 2 Corinthians 5:2 (ESV) — 2 For in this tent we groan, longing to put on our heavenly dwelling,
  • 2 Corinthians 5:4 (ESV) — 4 For while we are still in this tent, we groan, being burdened—not that we would be unclothed, but that we would be further clothed, so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.


So it appears that our inward groaning is…

  • Our Spirit filled heart and mind expressing a lament of the “now” because we know there is a glorious “not yet”.


Before we move on to our next question…

  • I want to take a short, but important, rabbit trail.



Jesus Rabbit Trail:

When we do a Logos inline search on the Greek word for groan, we find an interesting use of the word.

  • Mark 7:33–35 (ESV) — 33 And taking him aside from the crowd privately, he put his fingers into his ears, and after spitting touched his tongue. 34 And looking up to heaven, he sighed and said to him, “Ephphatha,” that is, “Be opened.” 35 And his ears were opened, his tongue was released, and he spoke plainly.
  • Sadly, there was only one interpretation I could find that translated it with the more accurate “groaned” – the NAB.


This is actually a beautiful picture of the “now” and “not yet” of which Paul speaks.

  • A “now” and a “not yet” that are both wrapped up in Jesus!


Who is it that is also groaning inwardly with us?

  • Answer – Jesus.
  • The 2nd person of the Trinity.


Over what is Jesus groaning?

  • The “now” of creation that Paul has been speaking about.
  • A corrupted, cursed, futile creation and a “body of death”.
  • In this case has manifested in a deaf and mute man.


What is Jesus’ solution to the corruption of creation found in this man?

  • Jesus groans!
  • Jesus heals!


This is awesome stuff!

  • The incarnation is God groaning with His creation and us!
  • The incarnation is God giving us glimpses of new creation.
  • A new creation in which all is put right.


So this means that Jesus’ healing miracles are the future breaking into the present (N.T. Wright).

  • They demonstrate that Jesus has the power to reverse the effects of The Fall!



Question 2:

Earlier in Romans 8, Paul has been speaking of some splendid things such as…

  • Our life in the Spirit.
  • The indwelling of the Holy Spirit.
  • The believer as sacred space.


Why does Paul turn into such a buzz killer with all this groaning stuff?

  • What might be the reason he brings all this bad news up after having pumped us up?


It appears he might be doing a couple of things.


(1) Explaining why those who are in Christ and indwelled by the Spirit still have a “body of death”.

  • Michael Bird puts it this way:
  • “…if believers have been freed from the ‘law of sin and death,’ why does death still engulf them? If believers have a share in the glory of Christ, where is this glory now?”


Paul certainly has experienced immense physical hardship since he put his believing loyalty in Christ.

  • And we certainly know that believers fill our hospitals; they die of cancer; they are murdered; they starve to death, etc.


So how might his description of the “now” address all this?


(2) And he also wants to bring our attention to the fact that God isn’t done.

  • Creation groaning and the “body of death” indicate things aren’t right.


But the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ have secured a resurrection future for us.

  • A future in which God will redeem all the suffering and groaning of the believer.


The Christian, then, is awaiting God’s action to put creation right – something that began with Christ.

  • And, for Paul, this is understood only against the backdrop of the “now”.
  • “…the fact of suffering [is] the dark backdrop against which the glorious future promised to the Christian shines with bright intensity” – Doug Moo.


In other words, to be glorified like Christ, we must suffer like Christ.

  • “Paul makes clear that this suffering is the condition for the inheritance; we will be ‘glorified with’ Christ (only) if we ‘suffer with him’’’ – Doug Moo.


So given all this Paul says:

  • 2 Corinthians 4:17 (ESV) — 17 For this light momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison,
  • We will deal with this “not yet” future next week.



Romans 8:12-17 – In Debt, Adopted and Heirs

Romans 8:12–17 (ESV) — 12 So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. 13 For if you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. 15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the Spirit of adoption as sons, by whom we cry, “Abba! Father!” 16 The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, then heirs—heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him.



Debtors – Vss. 12-13:

12 So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. 13 For if you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.


Paul sums up his previous statements about flesh and death, and Spirit and life with a new twist – “opheiletes”.

  • He essentially says – though he cuts himself off…
  • That we are “opheiletes” “not to the flesh”…
  • But “opheiletes” to the Spirit.


The ESV translates “opheiletes” as “debtors”.

  • Whereas the NET, NIV and HCSB versions translate it as “under obligation”.
  • The latter does a much better job of conveying the meaning of Paul’s thoughts.



  • The idea is that those in the Spirit are…
  • “under obligation to” do the things of the Spirit.


We are no longer “under obligation to” do the things of the flesh (“power of the old age” – Moo).

  • Only those in the flesh are “under obligation to” “live according to the flesh”.


What does it look like to live “under obligation to” the Spirit?

  • …you put to death the deeds of the body…”.


Importantly, “…you put to death” is in the indicative.

  • Paul is speaking of what you already do in the Spirit.
  • It is done.
  • This is not a command.
  • “Paul refers to a fact that is true of believers, not a quality of life to which they are exhorted to attain” – Tom Schreiner.


This runs parallel to “phroneo” – setting our minds on the Spirit.

  • Those empowered by the Spirit both…
    • Already have a mindset for things of the Spirit…
    • And already live “under obligation to” the Spirit.
  • Both of these things are a work of God!


These speak to the awesome freedom for those in Christ and in the Spirit!

  • We have been freed from “phroneo-ing” in the flesh.
  • We have been freed from our slavery to – our obligation to – the flesh.



But – Sin Killing:

Paul makes clear in our text and in prior verses…

  • That our new orientation to sin is owes itself to our new address…
  • To being in Christ…
  • To being in the Spirit…
  • All of which is a done deal – an indicative.


But this does not mean that there is no imperative to be sin killers.

  • There most certainly is.
  • Colossians 3:5a (ESV) — 5a Put to death therefore what is earthly in you…


Because we “phroneo” in the Spirit and are “under obligation to” the Spirit…

  • We are “are empowered to resist the flesh” – Bird.


So we are called to act in ways to kill sin.

  • And we will desire to kill sin.
  • Though we will often fail.


And it is the Spirit that gives us a footing from which to kill sin.

  • “It is by the agency of the Spirit that the believer [kills] the deeds of the body and attempts to erect a barricade against fleshly intrusion” – Michael Bird.


Doug Moo nails the interplay between the Gospel indicatives and imperatives:

“Neither the ‘indicative’—what God has done for us in Christ—nor the ‘imperative’—what we are commanded to do—can be eliminated. Nor can they be severed from one another; they are inextricably connected. The point of that connection in this passage is the Spirit. The same Spirit that ‘set us free from the law of sin and death’ has taken up residence within us, producing in us that ‘mind-set’ which tends toward the doing of God’s will and resists the ways of the flesh” – Doug Moo.



Gospel Application – Vss. 14-17:

14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. 15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the Spirit of adoption as sons, by whom we cry, “Abba! Father!” 16 The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 17a and if children, then heirs—heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ…


In line with Paul’s strategy in previous verses…

  • Here he once again applies the facts of the Gospel to the life of the believer.
  • And, as before, he does so with theology.


I want to focus on two of his applications.

  • (1) His positional application.
  • (2) His assurance application.



(1) Positional Application:

Paul uses a series of phrases to heap on some more good news for those indwelled by the Spirit.

  • Sons of God” (vs. 14).
  • Adoption as sons” (vs. 15).
  • Children of God” (vs. 16).
  • Heirs of God” (vs. 17).


The central of these (we are told) is the idea of adoption.

  • The rest flow from it.


What’s cool here is that…

  • Paul is the first person to use the Greek word for adoption “in a theological context” – DPP.
  • So in order to make his point, he repurposes a Greek word.


The question is what did he mean by it?

  • And the language that flows from it – “children” and “heirs”?


A simple way to understand the language is that by it Paul is giving us…

  • Both a now and not yet position with God.



The “Now” of Our Position:

So by virtue of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit acting on behalf of the Father, through the Son…

  • The Spirit bestows and confirms adoption upon us – right now (Doug Moo).
  • At this very moment, we are “made/declared/constituted” as God’s children (Bird).
  • We are adopted as sons/children of God.


The idea behind this son/children language is thoroughly Old Testament.

  • In the OT, Israel is known as God’s son.
  • Exodus 4:22 (ESV) — 22 Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the Lord, Israel is my firstborn son,
  • Jeremiah 31:9 (ESV) — 9 With weeping they shall come, and with pleas for mercy I will lead them back, I will make them walk by brooks of water, in a straight path in which they shall not stumble, for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn.


Paul also mentions this in Romans 9.

  • Romans 9:4 (ESV) — 4 They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises.


But what about the Gentiles?

  • If God promised to bless the nations through Israel…
  • How are the nations (Gentiles) to be made sons?
  • To be included in the blessing that comes with sonship?


The answer is by adoption.


I like what Moo points out about this:

  • “Paul has taken a term that depicts Israel’s unique status as God’s people and ‘transferred’ it to Christians” – Doug Moo.


By adoption, we are now God’s people.

  • We are God’s sons and daughters.
  • We are God’s chosen, covenant people.
  • We, like Christ, can now called the Father, “Abba”.


And it is certainly true that…

  • Even the Jew requires adoption into the New Covenant.


BTW – Most believe the slavery-adoption-son language pictures the Exodus.

“When Paul talks of believers being ‘led,’ being adopted as ‘sons,’ and escaping ‘slavery’…it is difficult not to be reminded of a cohort of texts about the exodus tradition. Remember that the exodus was the event where Israel was brought out of the land of slavery and made a ‘son of God’” – Michael Bird.


Moving on.



Our Now and God’s Turf:

Paul also speaks of adoption and son-ship in Galatians too – but with a twist:

  • Galatians 3:29–4:5 (ESV) — 29 And if you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s offspring, heirs according to promise. 1 I mean that the heir, as long as he is a child, is no different from a slave, though he is the owner of everything, 2 but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by his father. 3 In the same way we also, when we were children, were enslaved to the elementary principles of the world. 4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law, 5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons.


Notice in this passage the curious phrase in 4:2:

  • were enslaved to the elementary principles [stoicheion] of the world”.
  • This word “stoicheion” refers to the powers of darkness – the rebellious elohim, demons, Satan, etc.


Paul sees our adoption and son-ship as relating to the cosmic turf war against such powers (like we discussed last week).

  • This is another feature of Paul’s adoption language that is shared with the Exodus event.
  • Egypt’s god’s vs. Yahweh.


As God’s adopted children we are, obviously, His turf.

  • This means we are no longer under the authority of the powers of darkness.
  • We are no longer property of “the elementary principles of the world”.
  • We are sacred space – like Eden, the Holy Mountain and the Temple.


John’s Gospel has a related text that speaks of the alternative to being God’s adopted children.

  • John 8:44 (ESV) — 44 You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks out of his own character, for he is a liar and the father of lies.



The “Not Yet” of Our Position:

So we have just seen that, right now, we are adopted children – sons and daughters – of God.

  • But, Paul also uses language that speaks of a future aspect of being children of the Father.


In verse 17, he says we are “heirs of God”.

  • This is the benefit of being God’s child that is “not yet” come.
  • It is an inheritance that we will receive as heirs.
  • We, “must look to the future for the full enjoyment of ‘sonship’” – Doug Moo.


What is the future benefit and enjoyment of an heir of God?

  • It is God Himself.
  • And it is all the promises – OT and NT – that God has made to his sons and daughters.
  • This involves everything from the people, nation and land promise to Abraham…
  • To resurrection life in the age to come.
  • As heirs, all of these are our inheritance.



(2) Assurance Application:

Paul says in Romans 8:16:

  • The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God”.
  • This is a beautiful text that speaks of the assurance we have has God’s sons and daughters.
  • But what does it mean?


We first need to understand what this text is literally saying.

  • It is not speaking of a one-way flow of bearing witness from the Holy Spirit to us.


But rather, it is saying that the bearing witness happens on two fronts (Tom Schreiner).

  • The Holy Spirit bears witness that “we are children of God”.
  • And “our spirit” bears witness that “we are children of God”.
  • There are two witnesses!


How does “our spirit” bear witness that “we are children of God”?

  • The short answer is found in the previous verse.
  • we cry, Abba Father!” (vs. 15).


This is an intimate, emotional cry.

  • One that comes only from a child of God.
  • One that comes from the heart.


Doug Moo describes it this way:

“In crying out ‘Abba, Father,’ the believer not only gives voice to his or her consciousness of belonging to God as his child but also to having a status comparable to that of Jesus himself” – Doug Moo.


Martin Luther describes it this way:

  • “Although I be oppressed with anguish and terror on every side, and seem to be forsaken and utterly cast away from thy presence, yet am I thy child, and thou art my Father for Christ’s sake: I am beloved because of the Beloved” – Martin Luther.


What are ways we cry out, “Abba, Father”?


How does the Holy Spirit bear witness that “we are children of God”?

  • On one level, the answer is the same – “we cry, Abba Father!
  • This can only be done by those indwelled by the Holy Spirit.


On another level, the Holy Spirit testifies…

  • By confirming for us the truth of the indicatives of the Gospel that Paul as been talking about.
  • The Spirit applies them to our hearts/minds.


The subject of assurance is admittedly difficult.

  • And it manifests in different ways for different people.


Some look to feelings.

  • And some look to the Gospel propositions found in the Bible.
  • I think an overemphasis on emotions can be dangerous.


And I don’t see how the propositional truths of the Gospel…

  • Can ever be overemphasized.
  • In fact, they should be foundational to an assurance that comes from our emotions.
  • The fuel for our “Abba, Father” cries.
  • If the propositions aren’t true, it makes no difference how profound our emotions are.


There is no assurance if:

  • God is not who He says He is…
  • And hasn’t done, isn’t doing and going to do what He says He will.
  • All of these are Gospel propositions.



Provided We Suffer – Verse 17b:

“…provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him.


Our inheritance as heirs is conditional.

  • “…we will be ‘glorified with’ Christ (only) if we ‘suffer’ with him” – Doug Moo.


The point here is not that we have to try and suffer…

  • Or perform a “work” of suffering.


The point has to do with the “body is dead” idea from verse 10.

  • We will suffer; we will get sick; we will die – our body is dead.
  • But this must happen “with him” – in union with Christ, indwelled by the Spirit.


Paul explains all this in 2 Corinthians.

  • 2 Corinthians 4:7–10 (ESV) — 7 But we have this treasure in jars of clay, to show that the surpassing power belongs to God and not to us. 8 We are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed, but not driven to despair; 9 persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed; 10 always carrying in the body the death of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in our bodies.


And he continues:

  • 2 Corinthians 4:16–17 (ESV) — 16 So we do not lose heart. Though our outer self is wasting away, our inner self is being renewed day by day. 17 For this light momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison,



Romans 8:9-11 – We Are Sacred Space – Garden and Mountain

Romans 8:9–11 (ESV) — 9 You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. 10 But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness. 11 If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you.



The “Spirit of God dwells in you”.

  • This has to be one of the most profound statements in the Bible.


As with virtually everything in Romans…

  • The implications are huge.


Paul says that the one in whom the Spirit of God dwells is:

  • (1) “Not in the flesh” – vs. 9.
  • (2) Belongs to God (by implication).
    • Because those who don’t have the Spirit do “not belong to him” – vs. 9.
  • (3) Have a body that “is dead
  • (4) Yet, in spite of this “the Spirit is life because of righteousness” for the believer – vs. 10.
  • (5) Will be given “life to your mortal bodies” – vs. 11.


We saw what the first two of these meant last week.

  • The second three are some exciting ways Paul applies the presence of the Spirit to the life of the believer.



  • The third one tells us that the believers “body is dead”.

Meaning, “…their physical bodies remain subject to death because of sin. The corruption and mortality introduced by Adam’s sin have not as yet been fully eradicated. The eschatological tension of the ‘not yet’ remains as the tragic cycle of birth, life, and death continues for the time being” – Michael Bird.


Yet, Paul’s fourth point tells us that even in the midst of this death…

  • The believer has the “no condemnation” (vs. 1) life in the Spirit – the life and peace of verse 6.


The reason the believer has this life is because the presence of the Holy Spirit demonstrates that…

  • We are in Christ and have been declared righteous – “because of righteousness”.


The fifth is the “not yet” blessing of having the Spirit of God.

  • The declaration of our righteousness in God’s law court…
  • Also means that in the future, our righteousness will be fully fleshed out…literally…in our glorified resurrected bodies!


Certainly, more can be said of these.

  • And there are also the normal “Christianeze” descriptions of this indwelling:
  • Indwelling as the power that “empowers them to live a life pleasing to God” – DPL.
  • Indwelling as the “power to make the saving events of Jesus’ life-death-resurrection present in an effective way for the believer” – DPL.


But what I want to dive deeper into Paul’s revelation that…

  • …the Spirit of God dwells in” the believer.


We’re going to do so in a little different way.

  • Specifically, we are going to tease out some Old Testament concepts.


We will see that the indwelling of the Spirit in the NT fulfills two expectations of the OT.

  • Lasting Submission
  • Lasting Sacred Space



Lasting Submission:

A constant theme in the OT is that of a heart/mind in rebellion to God.

  • Moses speaks to this as well as anybody in Deuteronomy.
  • Deuteronomy 9:24 (ESV) — 24 You have been rebellious against the Lord from the day that I knew you.


An idea repeated even in the N.T.

  • Acts 7:51 (ESV) — 51 “You stiff-necked people, uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Spirit. As your fathers did, so do you.


But along with the recognition of the problem…

  • There is an understanding of the nature of the solution.


Moses speaks of the solution this way…

  • Deuteronomy 10:16 (ESV) — 16 Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no longer stubborn.


This solution is a transformation of the heart/mind.

  • But how exactly is this to be accomplished?
  • How are those with believing loyalty in God to have a lasting (in a now and not yet since) submission to God from a circumcised heart/mind?


Ezekiel and Isaiah shed some light on how this would happen.

  • Ezekiel 36:26–27 (ESV) — 26 And I will give you a new heart, and a new spirit I will put within you. And I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. 27 And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes and be careful to obey my rules.
  • Isaiah 44:3 (ESV) — 3 For I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground; I will pour my Spirit upon your offspring, and my blessing on your descendants.


The thirsty land and the dry ground of the stubborn heart and mind…

  • Need to be permanently (or at least “now and not yet” permanently) broken up and softened.
  • The occasional softening by natural rain, and will power, doesn’t last.
  • These don’t bring lasting submission.


Lasting submission to God comes from a new heart and renewed mind.

  • It comes from the “phroneo” of the things of the Spirit that Paul speaks of in Romans 8.


And this only happens when the believer is made new by the Spirit of God.

  • “The Spirit is the power of new creation…” – DPL.


So the indwelling of the Holy Spirit is the regeneration – being born again – language of the NT.

  • And it is the fulfillment of the hope for a lasting submission as expressed by Moses and others.


So when the Spirit dwells in us – regenerating our hearts/minds…

  • We enter into lasting submission to God.
  • The stubborn heart/mind is “now and not yet” vanquished forever!


There is one more cool aspect to what Paul has in mind with being dwelled by the Spirit.

  • Along with lasting submission, it brings lasting sacred space.



Lasting Sacred Space:

I’ll let Paul get us started.

  • 1 Corinthians 6:19 (ESV) — 19 Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God? You are not your own


This revelation of Paul is awesome.

  • We are indwelled by the Holy Spirit.
  • And thus, this means we are “a temple”.
  • “We are the place where God dwells— the same presence that filled the temple in the Old Testament” – Michael Heiser.



  • What are we to make of this?


To begin to fathom the implications of this aspect of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit…

  • We need to unpack exactly what this temple imagery represented to a first century Jew.


We are going to look at two examples.

  • Both of which deal with the idea of Sacred Space (or Cosmic Geography).
  • (1) Temple as the Sacred Space of the Garden of Eden
  • (2) Temple as the Sacred Space of a Cosmic (seen and unseen realms) Mountain



Sacred Space – Garden of Eden:

In the OT, the Temple was seen as analogous to the Garden of Eden.

  • “As the divine abode, the tabernacle/temple was also analogous to Eden” – Michael Heiser.


G.K. Beale gives a number of reasons to make this point – here are 5.

  • (1) The Garden, like the Temple, was “the place of God’s special presence where he made himself known and felt to Israel”.
  • (2) The Garden, like the Temple, had a priest (Adam) to guard and keep the sacred space.
  • (3) “The tree of life served as a model for the lampstand, which was clearly shaped as a tree, in the Temple”.
  • (4) The Garden was known as “the holy mountain of God” (Ezk. 28), just like Mount Zion – the location of the Temple in Jerusalem.


We might also recall from our lessons on Genesis 1-3…

  • That the Garden implied God’s Garden presence, blessing and life.


But Adam, the High Priest of the Garden Temple, was thrown out.

  • God’s Garden presence, blessing and life didn’t last.


And every person born since then has been born in Garden Exile.

  • Born outside of God’s Garden presence, blessing and life.
  • The Sacred Space of Eden didn’t last!


How can the Sacred Space of Eden be restored?

  • By the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.


To be a “temple of the Holy Spirit” is to be, (in some sense), a new Garden.

  • The Spirit’s indwelling means (in some sense) we have returned to Eden.



Sacred Space – Cosmic Mountain:

We saw that the Garden in Eden and the Temple in Jerusalem were God’s Holy Mountains.

  • Simple enough.


But we need to know that…

  • In an ancient Jewish context, God’s Holy Mountain was the place where His divine council (1 Kings 22:19-21) met.
  • Zechariah 8:3 (ESV) — 3 Thus says the Lord: I have returned to Zion and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem, and Jerusalem shall be called the faithful city, and the mountain of the Lord of hosts, the holy mountain.


This means that the Holy Mountain was also the place from which God battled the powers of darkness.

  • The Psalmist speaks of this.
  • Psalm 48:1–2 (ESV) — 1 Great is the Lord and greatly to be praised in the city of our God! His holy mountain, 2 beautiful in elevation, is the joy of all the earth, Mount Zion, in the far north [Zaphon], the city of the great King.
  • (Also think of Elijah and the prophets of Baal on Mt. Carmel).


We need to notice:

  • In Ugarit, “Zaphon” is the mountain from which Baal ruled – Heiser.
  • The HALOT actually uses the phrase “mountain of the gods”.


In fact, the Canaanites referred to “Zaphon” as:

  • “Baal’s ‘beautiful hill,’ his ‘inheritance,’ his ‘holy mountain,’ and a ‘lovely, mighty mountain’” – NIVZSB.


All of this means the mountain, “Zaphon”, would be where Baal held his divine council.

  • A council operating in opposition to Yahweh.


And interestingly it is “Zaphon”, Baal’s mountain…

  • That was the mountain in “the far north”.
  • But the Psalmist identifies Mount Zion, which is south, with the northern mountain “Zaphon”.


So what is going on in this text?

  • Why associate Mount Zion with a Northern mountain?
  • How does it reflect a battle against the powers of darkness?


By associating Mount Zion with “Zaphon”, the Psalmist is describing a Cosmic Mountain turf war.

  • One in which the winner is YHWH (Heiser).


It is YHWH who is:

  • The “great king” – not Baal.
  • And it His Mountain, Zion, that is “the joy of all the earth” – not “Zaphon”.


So what we have is:

  • “The psalmist is stealing glory from Baal, restoring it to the One to whom it rightfully belongs— Yahweh” – Michael Heiser.
  • And he does so by rightly subsuming and collapsing Baal’s mountain and council into Yahweh’s.
  • So Psalm 48, “deliberately argues that Yahweh is greater than Baal and that his dwelling place is greater than Baal’s” – NIVZSB.


In other words, this is a polemic turf war against Baal, his mountain and divine council.

  • Just like the ones we saw in our Joshua study.
  • Such as when God controlled the chaos of Baal’s river (the Jordan) and enabled the Israelites to pass through.


BTW – Michael Heiser makes this observation about the OT turf war:

“The New Testament portrays the Christian life— even the very Christian existence— as prompting a spiritual turf war. But we often don’t pick up on the messaging. Sacred space and realm distinction are not just Old Testament concepts” – Michael Heiser.

  • He goes on to say – “wherever believers are and gather, the spiritual ground they occupy is sanctified amid the powers of darkness” – Michael Heiser.


But, like the Garden, the Cosmic Mountain’s reign was temporary.

  • The throne room of Mount Zion’s Temple was repeatedly destroyed.
  • It didn’t last.


So how can the Sacred Space of God’s Holy Mountain be restored?

  • How about through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.
  • Like “Zaphon”, we have been claimed as God’s turf – His Holy Mountain – His Sacred Space.


Isaiah knew this “lasting” Sacred Space would come:

  • Isaiah 33:20 (ESV) — 20 Behold Zion, the city of our appointed feasts! Your eyes will see Jerusalem, an untroubled habitation, an immovable tent, whose stakes will never be plucked up, nor will any of its cords be broken.


Isaiah’s words express the hope for a lasting Mount Zion and Temple/tabernacle.

  • One to be fulfilled by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit that Paul teaches.


And yet – even as awesome as all this is…

  • There is still a “not yet” aspect to it to be fulfilled.
  • A fulfillment that punctuates the “Lasting Sacred Space” idea.
  • Revelation 3:12 (ESV) — 12 The one who conquers, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God. Never shall he go out of it, and I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down from my God out of heaven, and my own new name.